HPV & Cervical Cancer: Some essential aspects women should know

According to the health experts, cervical cancer has been termed to be a malignant type of cancer tissue which attacks the cervix region. Several types of cervical cancer take place.  The common type that affects 80% to 85% of women is squalors cell carcinoma (SCC). The major trigger to develop this type of cancer is HPV infection. 

The other types are small cell carcinoma, adenokarsinoma, melanoma, lymphoma, adenosarcoma and adenosquamos.

Symptoms and signs

Cervical cancer in its early stage is considered to be asymptomatic. The advanced stages have shown symptoms of back pain, vaginal bleeding, cloudy urine, digestive disorders like chronic constipation, urinary symptoms like dyisuria including tenemus. 

Besides this, the patient is likely to experience intense pain during sexual intercourse. Moreover, vaginal discharge also is a symptom with advanced cervical cancer. The lesser known symptoms of this disease are weight loss, loss of appetite, leg swelling, leg pain, fatigue and leaking feces or urine from the vagina. 

CIN/CIS (Carcinoma in Situ)

CIN can be identified by Pap smear in cervical. There is present treatment to avoid cancer growth. CIN is stated to be pre-malignant cell cluster which is ‘in place’ or ‘in situ’. This did not spread to the other body parts or moved from its original position. The number of patients suffering from invasive cervical cancers has reduced dramatically by using cervical scanning program. Cervical cancer in India is being treated by the best doctors employed at some of the reputed hospitals spread across the country.

Annual Pap smear is recommended to women, right from their initial sexual intercourse, until they reach 70 years. In case, 2-3 years of results are found to be normal, then the frequency of tests can be reduced to 2-3 years. 

Not all HPV infected women are affected with CIN as well as not all women having CIN affected with cervical cancer. Most of them are found to get well from HPV infections with their immune systems, similar to other infections. 

But there are some HPV types affecting the cervix region that might settle down for few years, changing the genetic cells, thus creating cervix and causing dysplasia. Severe dysplasia might convert to invasive cervical cancer, in case, immediate treatment is not provided. Usually, symptoms are not shown by CIN. 


Proper and timely treatment can help cervical cancer patients to get back to normal life. According to the medical experts, survival rates after 5 years is about 92% for those getting treatment during the early stages, for stage 1 it is 80% to 90% and for stage 2, it is 50% to 65%. For women suffering from stage 3, the survival chances are just 25% to 35% and those affected with the 4th stage, the chances are lesser than 15%. It is for this reason, early detection is necessary by screening or scanning. The physician is to be visited immediately if the person experiences back pain, vaginal bleeding, pain while urinating and cloudy urine, swollen feet, constipation and leaking feces or urine from vagina.
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